micro nutrients healthy skin cells


Natural nutrients are super

Below is a glossary of the micro nutrients found in the Tone and Defence Formula Skin Oil. These are provided due to the extent of research carried out to provide the skin oil to you. For all those scientists out there or medical professionals, a full appreciation can be given to the potential relevance of the formula for skin health.

What are micro nutrients?

Micro nutrients are chemical elements. They are beneficial in trace amounts for normal growth and development of cells. Natural ingredients are safe long-term. These fabulous chemicals are found in their purest, natural state in T&D Skin Oil.


Properties of Chemicals Found in T&D Skin Oil


  1. Essential Fatty Acids Fatty acids are organic, with a long straight hydrocarbon chain and an even number of carbon atoms. They are fundamental constituents of many important lipids, including triglycerides. Some fatty acids are made by our own bodies. However, essential fatty acids need to be obtained from external sources and are essential for growth.
  2.  Oleic Acid A mono-unsaturated omega-9 fatty acid created by dehydrogenation of stearic acid. Oleic acid is not an essential fatty acid (EFA). However, providing it to cells in culture reduces energy demand.
  3. Linolenic Acid A ω-3 fatty acid that serves as a precursor to eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA). Conversion is greater in women than men, and conversely, β-oxidation metabolism is greater in men than women.
  4. Acetyl-11-keto-beta-boswellic acid (AKBA) Mainly β-boswellic acids are the major biologically active constituents. Studies are currently underway to assess their application to kill cancer cells.

Omega Acids

  1. Palmitoleic Acid (aka Omega 7) A minor monounsaturated fatty acid in the human diet and in blood plasma. It has been shown to lower cholesterol levels and increases metabolic efficiency as a result. Reduces inflammation associated with eczema and other skin conditions.
  2. Palmitoleic Acid (aka Omega 6)
    Linoleic acid increases cell production and is an essential fatty acid (PUFA). Used as a precursor of arachidonic acid (AA) and various prostaglandins.

Life Acids

  1.  Amino Acids Organic compounds containing an amino group (-NH2) and a carboxyl group (-COOH); the fundamental constituents of all proteins. Breakdown of proteins within the body yields the following amino acids: alanine, arginine, asparagine, aspartic acid, cysteine, cystine, glutamic acid, glutamine, glycine, histidine, isoleucine, leucine, lysine, methionine, phenylalanine, proline, serine, threonine, tryptophan, tyrosine and valine. Essentially, amino acids are needed in healthy, normal growth and development and are the building blocks of life.


  1. Vitamin A (also known as retinol) Fat soluble micro nutrients essential for growth. Needed for vision in dim light and the maintenance of soft mucous tissue.
  2. Vitamin B Essential micro nutrients that function as coenzymes, therefore facilitating reactions within the body. Examples include decarboxylation reactions in carbohydrate metabolism, tissue respiration and trans-amination of amino acids. It also aids synthesis of nucleic acids and maintenance of myelin (parts of the nerve cell) in the nervous system.
  3.  Vitamin D Another fat soluble micro nutrients, that enhances calcium and phosphorus absorption into the body. They promote deposition of these nutrients within bones.
  4.  Vitamin E Various forms of vitamin E are found: a-tocopherol, b-tocopherol, c-tocopherol and d-tocopherol. These are fat soluble vitamins. They prevent the oxidation of unsaturated fats in cell membranes, therefore maintaining their structure.

The ene’s

  1. Cadinene (Sesquiterpene) Antifungal action and act to aid delivery of oxygen molecules to cells. Because their action is similar to haemoglobin in the blood and has been effective against cancer cells.
  2. Myrcene Synergizes the antibiotic potential of other terpenes. Changes the permeability of cell membranes to allow more efficient absorption of nutrients. Consequently, it behaves as an analgesic, is antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, anti-insomnia and inhibits cell mutation which can lead to cancer.
  3.  Caryophyllene Present for aroma/fragrance and is potentially therapeutic for anxiety and depression (also found in beer).
  4.  Pinene Fights cancer by encouraging apoptosis (programmed cell death). Also anti-proliferative, antioxidant, analgesic, antibacterial and anti-inflammatory. Research shows that it seems to aid memory retention.
  5. Alpha Pinene (α-Pinene) Anti-inflammatory and antibiotic. It exhibits activity as an acetyl-cholinesterase inhibitor, aiding memory.
  6.  Dipentene Also known as Limonene. Properties include: anti- cancer (breast, liver, pancreatic, gastric, prostate and lung), anti-inflammatory, antioxidant activity, anti-fungal and anti-bacterial.
  7.  Phellandrene Has fungicidal and potent insecticidal properties. This is due to, studies that show it potentially promotes immune system responses.
  8.  Camphene Has antifungal, sedative, analgesic and antibacterial properties. Helps treat dermatitis and also has a cooling effect on the skin. Camphene, Cineole and Eugenol are cumulatively effective against bacterial, fungal and viral infections of the respiratory system. Hence, research is underway at present for their use.
  9. Terpinolene Shown to reduce cancer cell progression.

Alcohols and Acetates

  1. Lavandulol & Lavandulyl acetate Lavandulyl acetate is the acetate ester of lavandulol. Has many actions and will treat various ailments. These include: athlete’s foot, itching, soothes insect bites, heals bruises, psoriasis, acne, eczema, heals wounds and burns (promoting the formation of scar tissue). Furthermore acts to  firms wrinkles.
  2. Octyl Acetate A fruity fragrance.
  3. Geranyl Acetate Ester that gives a scent. Analgesic and anti-inflammatory.
  4. Borneol (Bornyl Acetate) It behaves as an analgesic (relieves pain), eliminates putridity and promotes flesh regeneration (repairs damaged cells). Also, shown to have skin whitening effects and antioxidant properties.
  5. Eugenol Anaesthetic and also antiseptic action.
  6. Linalool Alcohol with antibacterial action. Also a Vitamin E metabolic intermediate.
  7. Linalyl acetate Naturally occurring phyto-chemical, same property as Linalool, which proves to play a major role in reducing inflamed tissues.

Other Compounds

  1. Plant Sterols Phytosterols (PS, comprising plant sterols and plant stanols) reduce LDL-cholesterol concentrations, which therefore increases blood circlulation. Atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) is lower, when consuming plant sterols.
  2. Nerol/Neral/Citral Clear colourless alcohol. E isomers are Geraniol and Citral α, Z isomers are Neral or Citral β. Treats nervous disorders, menstrual problems, stomach problems and arthritis. Also increases blood flow, treats join pains, tendinitis, athlete’s foot, sprains and cuts, anti-microbial, antipyretic, antispasmodic, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory.
  3. Citronellal Antifungal activity with a lemon scent.
  4. Cineole Form of Eucalyptol, has antibacterial and decongestant activities. Known to be the Koala bears favorite food. It is also anti-inflammatory and an analgesic agent.
  5. Phytoconstituents  are micro nutrients that protect the skin against exogenous and endogenous harmful agents. They can help remedy many skin conditions, due to healing, softening, rejuvenating, and sunscreen effects.
  6. Chlorophyll Chlorophyll acts like a physiological stimulant of the red blood cells in the bone marrow. As a result of this, good for anaemia sufferers. It also contains Vitamins A, C and E which are anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory compounds that reduce inflammation. Antiseptic properties of Chlorophyll have the ability to kill pathogens due to strengthening tissues and the body’s natural immune system response.
  7.  Carotenoids Finally, Carotenoids (lutein, astaxanthin and zeaxanthin) apparently act directly to absorb damaging blue and near-ultraviolet light. This consequently protects the macula of the retina, the part of the eye with the sharpest vision.

We hope that this information has been informative. Knowledge of what is present within a tiny drop of T&D Skin Oil has taken centuries to obtain. Hence, we are very lucky to have the information!

If there is anything you want to ask us, please contact us.